برنامه ریزی کاربری زمین با هدف بهینه سازی مصرف انرژی در راستای توسعه پایدار شهری (نمونه مورد مطالعه: ناحیه 2 منطقه 8 تهران)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی (ره) قزوین، ایران

2 استادیار دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی (ره) قزوین، ایران

چکیده

امروزه مصرف انرژی در کلان شهرها مشکلات زیست‌محیطی بسیاری را به وجود آورده است. بر همین اساس باید برنامه-ریزی شهری جهت بهینه سازی مصرف انرژی به عنوان یک ضرورت مورد توجه قرار گیرد. مطالعه حاضر با هدف ارزیابی معیارها و زیرمعیارهای برنامه‌ریزی کاربری زمین در محدوده ناحیه دو منطقه هشت تهران در راستای توسعه پایدار شهری و بهینه‌سازی مصرف انرژی انجام شده است. در این پژوهش جهت شناسایی معیارها و زیرمعیارها، از روش تحقیق تحلیلی، ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت کتابخانه‌ای و میدانی و برای اولویت‌بندی و بررسی تاثیر آن‌ها از نرم‌افزار GIS استفاده شده است. مدل‌سازی تاثیر کاربری نهایی در مصرف انرژی با استفاده از نرم‌افزار EnergyPLAN انجام شد. ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ مطالعه ﻧﺸﺎن داد ﻛﻪ در محدوده مورد مطالعه، زﻳﺮ معیارهای ﺗﻨﻮع ﻛﺎرﺑﺮی‌ها، ﺷﻌﺎع ﭘﻮﺷﺸﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ اﻳﺴﺘﮕﺎه‌های ﺣﻤﻞ و ﻧﻘﻞ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ، ﺗﺮاﻛﻢ بهینه واحدهای ﻣﺴﻜﻮﻧﻲ و غیرﻣﺴﻜﻮﻧﻲ از ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻣﻄﻠﻮب نسبی ﺑﺮﺧﻮردار می‌باشند. همچنین زﻳﺮمعیارهایی نظیر ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﺤﻠﻪ ﻓﻌﺎل، دﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ پیاده ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮی‌های ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺗﻲ اﺻﻠﻲ، سهمﻣﻄﻠﻮب ﻓﻀﺎی ﺳﺒﺰ، دسترسی به فضاهای عمومی و تعداد پارکینگ‌های عمومی در مجاورت ایستگاه‌های حمل و نقل عمومی، ﻛﻪ در وﺿﻊ ﻣﻮﺟﻮد ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻧﺎﻣﻄﻠﻮﺑﻲ دارﻧﺪ، باید ارﺗﻘﺎء ﻳﺎﺑﻨﺪ. در نهایت، دو طرح کاربری زمین جهت بهبود وضع موجود پیشنهاد شد. پس از اختلاط کاربری پیشنهادی و وضع موجود، زیرمعیارهایی که در وضع موجود شرایط مناسبی نداشتند، ارتقا پیدا نمودند. نتایج مدل‌سازی انرژی در بخش حمل و نقل نشان داد که مصرف انرژی از 1.6 تراوات ساعت به 1.44 تراوات ساعت در سال و دی اکسید کربن از850 هزارتن به 760 هزار تن در سال کاهش یافته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Land use planning to optimize energy consumption for sustainable urban development (Case study: Region 2, District 8, Tehran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Atousa Bahrabadi 1
  • Maliheh Babakhani 2
1 Master of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The increasing growth of urbanization, especially in developing countries, has had various economic, social, physical, and environmental consequences. One of these consequences is the upward growth of about 20% in cities’ consumption and energy demand in the last three decades. This trend is expected to continue until 2035. Accordingly, in recent years, urban planning regarding the minimum energy consumption has been considered by urban planners. In urban planning, energy consumption is related to land uses, and based on this approach, sustainable urban development can maintain and promote sustainability that emphasizes energy consumption. There is a significant and logical relationship between land use planning components with energy consumption in cities and neighborhoods. Identifying the relationship between them can be optimized as much as possible. This study identifies and evaluates the criteria and essential indicators of land use planning on energy consumption to determine strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Finally, their matrix is drawn for the Region 2 of District 8 of Tehran. The perspective, strategies, and goals are presented to improve the status quo and proposed plans for land use optimization to reduce energy consumption.
Materials and methods
The present study is an analysis based on library and field studies and, from the standpoint of the component process, is in the category of quantitative research. Land use planning criteria and sub-criteria that affect energy consumption were examined and evaluated using GIS tools to identify those not in good condition. Then, according to the current land use status and the detailed plan of the study area, the final land use plan is proposed and integrated with the existing land use status. Finally, the undesirable sub-criteria in the new plan are reviewed again, and the rate of reduction of energy consumption and emission of pollutants is calculated using EnergyPLAN software.
Findings
Like density of residential and non-residential units, residential use at a distance from various uses, access to public transport stations, pedestrian access to the main service uses, and the possibility of creating a bicycle network, according to the measurement criteria, in the current situation of the study area are favorable conditions. The final proposed land use plan was presented according to the analysis of land use criteria and sub-criteria and the vision, policies, and strategies for land use planning for the Region 2 of District 8 of Tehran to optimize energy consumption and reduce pollution. The unfavorable critical sub-criteria were upgraded and improved by integrating the proposed land use plan with the current situation. By modeling energy in the EnergyPLAN software, it was found that approximately 160-gigawatt hours are saved in the transportation sector per year. Also, about 80,000 to 90,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions will be reduced annually in the study area.
Today, one of the challenges facing governments around the world is to create cities that are energy efficient. In this regard, land use planning and its tools are influential in reducing energy consumption. This study aims to evaluate the land use criteria and sub-criteria in the Region 2 of District 8 of Tehran, to optimize energy consumption and analyze them to achieve strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of land use to reduce energy consumption. Regarding improving the current land use situation, two proposed land use plans were presented to strengthen linear centers, create active neighborhood centers concerning changeable land uses, and consider some limitations in the study area. Finally, the final proposed land use plan was presented due to the importance of some land uses and the lack of per capita in the detailed plan. By integrating the final design with the current situation and re-examining the sub-criteria that were not evaluated as favorable in the current situation, it was found that all of them have been improved and upgraded. One of the most critical problems after integrating the proposed land use plan is the lack of an active neighborhood center in the Narmak neighborhood, which has faced problems due to the lack of transitionary use.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Energy Consumption Optimization
  • Land Use
  • Planning
  • Sustainable Urban Development
  • Tehran
[1] Montazerian R, Elyasi E. Land Application Planning with Local Sustainable Development Approach to Achieve Optimized Energy Consumption. Current World Environment. 2015;10(Special Issue):650. [In Persian]
[2] Hajinezhad A, Servati P. Role of Renewable Energy Scenarios in Carbon Dioxide Emissions Forecasting in Iran in Outlook 2030. International Journal of Ambient Energy. 2021 Oct 28(just-accepted):1-27.
[3] Kaza N, Curtis MP. The land use energy connection. Journal of Planning Literature. 2014 Nov;29(4):355-69.
[4] Abubakar IR. Access to sanitation facilities among Nigerian households: determinants and sustainability implications. Sustainability. 2017 Apr;9(4):547.
[5] Hankey S, Marshall JD. Impacts of urban form on future US passenger-vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. Energy Policy. 2010 Sep 1;38(9):4880-7.
[6] Liu X, Sweeney J. Modelling the impact of urban form on household energy demand and related CO2 emissions in the Greater Dublin Region. Energy Policy. 2012 Jul 1; 46:359-69.
[7] Stone Jr B, Rodgers MO. Urban form and thermal efficiency: how the design of cities influences the urban heat island effect. American Planning Association. Journal of the American Planning Association. 2001 Apr 1;67(2):186.
[8] Evers BA. Why adopt the Sustainable Development Goals? The case of multinationals in the Colombian coffee and extractive sector (Doctoral dissertation, Master Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam).2018.
[9] Sharifi A. Urban sustainability assessment: An overview and bibliometric analysis. Ecological Indicators. 2021 Feb 1; 121:107102.
[10] Ma J, Liu Z, Chai Y. The impact of urban form on CO2 emission from work and non-work trips: The case of Beijing, China. Habitat International. 2015 Jun 1; 47:1-0.
[11] Ye H, He X, Song Y, Li X, Zhang G, Lin T, Xiao L. A sustainable urban form: The challenges of compactness from the viewpoint of energy consumption and carbon emission. Energy and Buildings. 2015 Apr 15; 93:90-8.
[12] Azizi MM, Gharaei A. Land use planning considering sustainable neighborhood development, with emphasis on energy efficiency (case study: Daroos, Tehran). Hoviatshahr. 2015 Jul 23;9(22):5-18. [In Persian]
[13] Ghazi F, Charehjoo F, Mirmoghtadaee M. Spatial Evaluation of Energy Performance at Neighborhood Scale Case Study: Sanandaj City. Space Ontology International Journal. 2019 Jun 1;8(2):77-88.
[14] Chigbu UE, Schopf A, de Vries WT, Masum F, Mabikke S, Antonio D, Espinoza J. Combining land-use planning and tenure security: A tenure responsive land-use planning approach for developing countries. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. 2017 Sep 2;60(9):1622-39.
[15] Savini F, Aalbers MB. The de-contextualisation of land use planning through financialisation: Urban redevelopment in Milan. European Urban and Regional Studies. 2016 Oct;23(4):878-94.
[16] Long H, Qu Y. Land use transitions and land management: A mutual feedback perspective. Land Use Policy. 2018 May 1; 74:111-20.
[17] Albert C, Galler C, Hermes J, Neuendorf F, Von Haaren C, Lovett A. Applying ecosystem services indicators in landscape planning and management: The ES-in-Planning framework. Ecological Indicators. 2016 Feb 1; 61:100-13.
[18] Loures L. Post-industrial landscapes as drivers for urban redevelopment: Public versus expert perspectives towards the benefits and barriers of the reuse of post-industrial sites in urban areas. Habitat International. 2015 Jan 1; 45:72-81.
[19] Loures L, Panagopoulos T, Burley JB. Assessing user preferences on post-industrial redevelopment. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design. 2016 Sep;43(5):871-92.
[20] Ferreira V, Panagopoulos T, Andrade R, Guerrero C, Loures L. Spatial variability of soil properties and soil erodibility in the Alqueva reservoir watershed. Solid Earth. 2015 Apr 9;6(2):383-92.
[21] Castanho R, Loures L, Fernández J, Pozo L. Identifying critical factors for success in Cross Border Cooperation (CBC) development projects. Habitat International. 2018 Feb 1; 72:92-9.
[22] Mohieldin M. The sustainable development goals and private sector opportunities. World bank group. 2017 Aug 4.
[23] Gossling-Goidsmiths J. Sustainable development goals and uncertainty visualization. Unpublished master’s thesis]. University of Twente. 2018 Sep.
[24] Hajinezhad A, Servati P, Yousefi H. Effect of The Landfill Leachate to quality of Groundwater of Bojnourd City with the Approach Standard Landfill Design or Replacement of Anaerobic Digester. Iranian journal of Ecohydrology. 2015 Sep 23;2(3):301-10.
[25] Zhai T, Chang YC. Standing of environmental public-interest litigants in China: Evolution, obstacles and solutions. Journal of Environmental Law. 2018 Nov 1;30(3):369-97.
[26] Breuer A, Janetschek H, Malerba D. Translating sustainable development goal (SDG) interdependencies into policy advice. Sustainability. 2019 Jan;11(7):2092.
[27] Tahani M, Servati P, Hajinezhad A, Noorollahi Y, Ziaee E. Assessment of wind energy use to store the water for generation power with the two-stage optimization method. Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment. 2015 Apr 1;2(2):23-8.
[28] Geun Ji H. The evolution of the policy environment for climate change migration in Bangladesh: Competing narratives, coalitions and power. Development Policy Review. 2019 Sep;37(5):603-20.
[29] Molinario E, Kruglanski AW, Bonaiuto F, Bonnes M, Cicero L, Fornara F, Scopelliti M, Admiraal J, Beringer A, Dedeurwaerdere T, deGroot W. Motivations to act for the protection of nature biodiversity and the environment: a matter of “Significance”. Environment and Behavior. 2020 Dec;52(10):1133-63.
[30] Servati P, Hajinezhad A. CFD simulation of anaerobic digestier to investigate sludge rheology and biogas production. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 2020 Dec;10(4):885-99.
[31] Mortazavi, Sara. Achieving Urban Sustainability with an Approach to Energy Consumption Based on the Shape of the City.Fourth National Conference on Architecture and Urban Planning "Sustainability and Resilience from Ideal to Reality". Qazvin.2017. [In Persian]
[32] Zhao J, Thinh NX, Li C. Investigation of the impacts of urban land use patterns on energy consumption in China: a case study of 20 provincial capital cities. Sustainability. 2017 Aug;9(8):1383.
[33] Rafiyan M, Fath Jalali A, Dadashpoor H. Evaluating the effect of building form and density on urban energy consumption (case study: Hashtgerd new town). Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development. 2011 Sep 1;4(6):107-16. [In Persian]
[34] Razavian MT, Moazzen S, Ghourchi M. Assessment of Energy Efficiency on a Neighborhood Scale Using the LEED Model for Sustainable Development (Case study: Velenjak neighborhood of Tehran city). Geography and Urban Space Development. 2019 Aug 23;6(1):237-23. [In Persian]
[35] Nolon JR. Land use for energy conservation and sustainable development: a new path toward climate change mitigation. J. Land Use & Envtl. L. 2011; 27:295.
[36] Liu X. Assessment of New Energy Use Policy in Land Use Planning. 2012.
[37] Wilson B. Urban form and residential electricity consumption: Evidence from Illinois, USA. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2013 Jul 1; 115:62-71.
[38] Council UG. Pilot version: LEED for neighborhood development rating system. Washington, DC: US Green Building Council. 2007.