عنوان مقاله [English]
The increasing growth of urbanization, especially in developing countries, has had various economic, social, physical, and environmental consequences. One of these consequences is the upward growth of about 20% in cities’ consumption and energy demand in the last three decades. This trend is expected to continue until 2035. Accordingly, in recent years, urban planning regarding the minimum energy consumption has been considered by urban planners. In urban planning, energy consumption is related to land uses, and based on this approach, sustainable urban development can maintain and promote sustainability that emphasizes energy consumption. There is a significant and logical relationship between land use planning components with energy consumption in cities and neighborhoods. Identifying the relationship between them can be optimized as much as possible. This study identifies and evaluates the criteria and essential indicators of land use planning on energy consumption to determine strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Finally, their matrix is drawn for the Region 2 of District 8 of Tehran. The perspective, strategies, and goals are presented to improve the status quo and proposed plans for land use optimization to reduce energy consumption.
Materials and methods
The present study is an analysis based on library and field studies and, from the standpoint of the component process, is in the category of quantitative research. Land use planning criteria and sub-criteria that affect energy consumption were examined and evaluated using GIS tools to identify those not in good condition. Then, according to the current land use status and the detailed plan of the study area, the final land use plan is proposed and integrated with the existing land use status. Finally, the undesirable sub-criteria in the new plan are reviewed again, and the rate of reduction of energy consumption and emission of pollutants is calculated using EnergyPLAN software.
Like density of residential and non-residential units, residential use at a distance from various uses, access to public transport stations, pedestrian access to the main service uses, and the possibility of creating a bicycle network, according to the measurement criteria, in the current situation of the study area are favorable conditions. The final proposed land use plan was presented according to the analysis of land use criteria and sub-criteria and the vision, policies, and strategies for land use planning for the Region 2 of District 8 of Tehran to optimize energy consumption and reduce pollution. The unfavorable critical sub-criteria were upgraded and improved by integrating the proposed land use plan with the current situation. By modeling energy in the EnergyPLAN software, it was found that approximately 160-gigawatt hours are saved in the transportation sector per year. Also, about 80,000 to 90,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions will be reduced annually in the study area.
Today, one of the challenges facing governments around the world is to create cities that are energy efficient. In this regard, land use planning and its tools are influential in reducing energy consumption. This study aims to evaluate the land use criteria and sub-criteria in the Region 2 of District 8 of Tehran, to optimize energy consumption and analyze them to achieve strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of land use to reduce energy consumption. Regarding improving the current land use situation, two proposed land use plans were presented to strengthen linear centers, create active neighborhood centers concerning changeable land uses, and consider some limitations in the study area. Finally, the final proposed land use plan was presented due to the importance of some land uses and the lack of per capita in the detailed plan. By integrating the final design with the current situation and re-examining the sub-criteria that were not evaluated as favorable in the current situation, it was found that all of them have been improved and upgraded. One of the most critical problems after integrating the proposed land use plan is the lack of an active neighborhood center in the Narmak neighborhood, which has faced problems due to the lack of transitionary use.