تحلیلی بر برنامه‌های توسعه اقتصادی و صنعتی کشور از منظر مفهوم هم‌افزایی اقتصادی – فضایی با تاکید بر منطقه کلان‌شهری تهران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشکده علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار جغرافیای انسانی و آمایش، دانشکده علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هم‏افزایی اقتصادی به عنوان انگارۀ جدید به دنبال بهره‏گیری از مزیت همکارانه میان بخش‏های مختلف اقتصادی برای نیل به توسعۀ اقتصادی است. از این‌رو، واکاوی این انگاره در طرح‏های و برنامه‏های توسعه می‏تواند مسیر جدیدی در سیاست‏گذاری و تأکید مجدد برای اقتصاد فضا به عنوان بخش مغفول‌مانده در نظام برنامه‏ریزی باشد. پژوهش حاضر به دنبال ارزیابی برنامه‏های توسعه از نظر عملکرد در بخش صنعتی است. روش پژوهش ترکیبی است. در بخش کیفی به تحلیل محتوای برنامه‏های توسعه پرداخته شده است. در بخش کمی شاخص‏های سنجش هم‏افزایی اقتصادی- فضایی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می‏دهد برنامه‏های توسعه به صورت کامل نتوانسته است صنایع کلیدی را شناسایی کند. افزون بر آن، استراتژی‏های توسعه نتوانسته است موجب ایجاد توسعۀ صنعتی در منطقه شود. بنابراین، پژوهش حاضر با بهره‏گیری از شاخص‏های هم‏افزایی اقتصادی اقدام به شناسایی صنایع کلیدی در منطقۀ کلان‏شهری تهران کرده است. شاخص‏ها برای شناسایی صنایع شامل میزان اشتغال، نقش فرامنطقه‏ای از نظر تولید ارزش‏افزوده و ضریب خوشه‏ای شدن، ضریب تخصصی شدن و بیشترین روابط پیشین و پسین است. افزون بر آن، اقدام به شناسایی این صنایع از نظر قابلیت شکل‏گیری زنجیرۀ ارزش و به بیانی، مزیت همکارانه میان شهرستان کرده است. در نهایت، این پژوهش ساختار فضایی و چارچوب نهادی پشتیبان ایجاد هم‏افزایی، در منطقۀ کلان‏شهری تهران پیشنهاد شده است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Economic and Industrial Development Plans from Spatial-Economic Synergy Perspective put an account of the Tehran Metropolitan Region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeid zarghami 1
  • Jamileh Tavakolinia 2
1 Researcher of Faculty of Earth Sciences in Geography and Urban Planning. Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor in Department of human geography and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Earth Sciences , Shahid Beheshti University,Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
In the past decades, development strategies have transformed. By way of explanation, what is known as a comparative advantage has been diminished, in reverse dynamic comparative and competitive advantages, and in the last decade, collaborative advantage has risen. At the micro-level, the collaborative advantage can reduce risk by enhancing productivity-improving profit performance, and competitive advantages, decreasing the cost of transportation and sharing access to complementary resources over time. At the regional level, it invokes cooperative infrastructure investment by joining cities’ different resources and advantages. This advantage has been raised because of its significance in the supply and value chains. Collaborative benefits of the supply chain are accomplished relative to competitors by using participation processes to empower participants to build knowledge. Meanwhile, collaborative advantages can create a synergy that the independent action of the participants never achieves such advantages. Economic synergy has entered the development debate and has become the agenda of strategists concerning economic activities, including micro-level(firm), middle-level (network, intra-regional relations), and macro-level(national).
Materials and Methods
The methodology of this research is mixed. The analysis method in the qualitative section includes a content analysis of cultural, social, and economic development programs and industrial development plans. Accordingly, industries that emphasize upcoming documents in the Tehran metropolitan region from a spatial-economic synergistic index perspective are evaluated. Additionally, approaches and policies in these plans are appraised. In the quantitative section of the methodology, we identified the industries with the most significant potential for creating economic synergy. Then, research indicators were extracted based on the background and theoretical foundations. Furthermore, the input-output table was used to analyze intra-industry relations. Finally, this research proposes a spatial structure and institutional framework for improving and supporting economic activities in the Tehran metropolitan region.
Findings
Industry development in Tehran metropolitan region has been impacted by the independent economic policy, the dominance of neoclassical economic thinking, and the import substitution industrialization approaches. So, cooperative advantages have been neglected for decades. Based on statistics from the Ministry of Mining Industry and Trade (MMIT)Share of the number of firms is about 26درصد, and 36درصد is the share of employment. Also, 200 firms add to the region on average annually. Despite these potentials, the amount of value-added produced by the region has a downward trend and has reached 25 percent. The most important factors, such as production capacity development with little regard for extra-regional relations and similarity of production capacity expansion, probably led to a decrease in value-added and share of GDP in the region. Therefore, this situation is direct to work similarity, destructive competitive process and finally many industries have faced issues as a result. Establishing 17 towns and industrial areas and investigating good flows among these indicate the weak functions of economic nodes in the field of location and expanding synergistic relationships. Furthermore, an investigation of industrial development policy-making trends shows that supporting all of the industry and neglecting product life cycle has played a critical role in this way. Significantly, the comprehensive supporting policy led to a lack of competitiveness in the long term. Moreover, the lack of appropriate cognation of global markets prevents the identification of strategic industries, so productions of the industry have lost competitiveness and consumer markets due to the increased production costs and reduced quality of them. The branding process for the industry has never been taken seriously. Meanwhile, an influential economic factor of intra-region has been indistinct for the expansion of the industry. In other words, approaches that are known in the literature as offset should be based on an expansion of industries in the region. 
Conclusion
The research results indicate that though the expansion of some crucial industries in plans has been neglected, a major focus on developing 11 industries has been increased. Some industries like printing and publishing leather and its products and medical instruments have been overlooked in these plans. Additionally, the strategic plan of the Ministry of Industry and Mine is not able to establish key industries due to considering some limited indicators alone. Therefore, this research offers spatial economic concepts as an essential factor that can effectively impact economic development. The investigation of the industry situation in terms of Enterprises number and employment rate shows that a substantial number of firms are classified into three categories, including small and mid-size enterprises. Thus, economic development strategy needs to be towards creating synergy among industries. Finally, If the industries’ enterprises have been developed as clustering, it would generate synergy through value chain formation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Development Plans
  • Spatial-Economic Synergy
  • Industry
  • Tehran Metropolitan Region
[1] World Bank. World development report 2009: Reshaping economic geography. The World Bank.2008. 
[2] OECD, How Regions Grow Trends and Analysis, 2009. 
[3] OECD, organization for economic co-operation and development staff. Regional development policies in OECD countries. OECD, 2010.‏
[4] carter, Chris; CLEGG, Stewart; KORNBERGER, Martin. Re‐framing strategy: power, politics and accounting. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 2010.
[5] Barca, Fabrizio. Agenda for a reformed cohesion policy. Brussels: European Communities, 2009.‏
[6] Solly, Alys. Place-based innovation in Cohesion Policy: meeting and measuring the challenges. Regional Studies, Regional Science, 2016, 3.1: 193-198.‏
[7] Mccann, Philip; ORTEGA-ARGILÉS, Raquel. Smart specialization, regional growth and applications to European Union cohesion policy. Regional studies, 2015, 49.8: 1291-1302.‏
[8] Porter, Michael E. Technology and competitive advantage. Journal of business strategy, 1985.‏
[9] Cao, Mei; Zhang, Qingyu. Supply chain collaborative advantage: a firm’s perspective. International Journal of Production Economics, 2010, 128.1: 358-367.‏
[10] Kogut, Bruce. Joint ventures: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. Strategic management journal, 1988, 9.4: 319-332.‏
[11] Park, Namgyoo K.; MEZIAS, John M.; SONG, Jaeyong. A resource-based view of strategic alliances and firm value in the electronic marketplace. Journal of Management, 2004, 30.1: 7-27.‏
[12] Kalwani, Manohar U.; NARAYANDAS, Narakesari. Long-term manufacturer-supplier relationships: do they pay off for supplier firms? Journal of marketing, 1995, 59.1: 1-16.‏
[13] Bratton, Tricia W., et al. Supply chain collaboration: the enablers, impediments, and benefits. In: Council of Logistics Management Fall MeetingCouncil of Logistics Management. 2000.‏
[14] Johnsen, Hans Christian Garmann; ENNALS, Richard (ed.). Creating collaborative advantage: Innovation and knowledge creation in regional economies. Gower Publishing, Ltd., 2012.‏
[15] JAP, Sandy D. Perspectives on joint competitive advantages in buyer–supplier relationships. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 2001, 18.1-2: 19-35.
[16] Vangen, Siv; HUXHAM, Chris. Enacting leadership for collaborative advantage: Dilemmas of ideology and pragmatism in the activities of partnership managers. British journal of management, 2003, 14: S61-S76.‏
[17] Malhotra, Arvind; Gosain, Sanjay; Sawy, Omar A. El. Absorptive capacity configurations in supply chains: Gearing for partner-enabled market knowledge creation. MIS quarterly, 2005, 145-187.‏
[18] Haspeslagh, Philippe C.; JEMISON, David B. Managing acquisitions: Creating value through corporate renewal. New York: Free Press, 1991.‏
[19] Meijers, Evert. Polycentric urban regions and the quest for synergy: is a network of cities more than the sum of the parts? Urban studies, 2005, 42.4: 765-781.‏
[20] Shaver, J. Myles. A paradox of synergy: Contagion and capacity effects in mergers and acquisitions. Academy of Management review, 2006, 31.4: 962-976.‏
[21] Hernandez, Exequiel; MENON, Anoop. Acquisitions, node collapse, and network revolution. Management Science, 2018, 64.4: 1652-1671.‏
[22] Hernandez, Exequiel; Shaver, J. Myles. Network synergy. Administrative Science Quarterly, 2019, 64.1: 171-202.‏
[23] Krugman, Paul. Geography and trade. MIT press, 1992.‏
[24] Krugman, Paul. The new economic geography, now middle-aged. Regional studies, 2011, 45.1: 1-7.‏
[25] Krugman, Paul R., et al. How the economy organizes itself in space: a survey of the new economic geography.‏
[26] Krugman, Paul. What's new about the new economic geography? Oxford review of economic policy, 1998, 14.2: 7-17.
[27] Fujita, Masahisa; Thisse, Jacques-François. New economic geography: an appraisal on the occasion of Paul Krugman's 2008 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences. Regional science and urban economics, 2009, 39.2: 109-119.‏
[28] Fujita, Masahisa. Thünen and the new economic geography. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 2012, 42.6: 907-912.‏
[29] Fujita, Masahisa; Krugman, Paul R.; Venables, Anthony. The spatial economy: Cities, regions, and international trade. MIT press, 1999.‏
[30] Fujita, Masahisa; Krugman, Paul. The new economic geography: Past, present and the future. In: Fifty years of regional science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2004. p. 139-164.‏
[31] Boschma, Ron A.; Frenken, Koen. Why is economic geography not an evolutionary science? Towards an evolutionary economic geography. Journal of economic geography, 2006, 6.3: 273-302.‏
[32] Boschma, Ron; Frenken, Koen. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography. Journal of economic geography, 2011, 11.2: 295-307.
[33] Boschma, Ron; Frenken, Koen. Evolutionary economic geography. The new Oxford handbook of economic geography, 2018, 213-229.‏
[34] Boschma, Ron; Martin, Ron. Constructing an evolutionary economic geography. Journal of Economic Geography, 2007, 7.5: 537-548.‏
[35] Boschma, Ron; Martin, Ronald. The handbook of evolutionary economic geography. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010.‏
[36] Martin, Ron; Sunley, Peter. Towards a developmental turn in evolutionary economic geography? Regional Studies, 2015, 49.5: 712-732.‏
[37] He, Canfei; Zhu, Shengjun. Evolutionary economic geography in China. Springer Singapore, 2019.‏
[38] Boschma, Ron. Global value chains from an evolutionary economic geography perspective: a research agenda. Area Development and Policy, 2022, 1-24.
[39] Cowell, Margaret. Polycentric regions: comparing complementarity and institutional governance in the San Francisco Bay area, the Randstad and Emilia-Romagna. Urban Studies, 2010, 47.5: 945-965.‏
[40] Neal, Zachary P. From central places to network bases: A transition in the US urban hierarchy, 1900–2000. City & Community, 2011, 10.1: 49-75.‏
[41] Leydesdorff, Loet; ZHOU, Ping. Measuring the knowledge-based economy of China in terms of synergy among technological, organizational, and geographic attributes of firms. Scientometrics, 2014, 98.3: 1703-1719.‏
[42] Leydesdorff, Loet; IVANOVA, Inga. “Open innovation” and “triple helix” models of innovation: can synergy in innovation systems be measured? Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 2016, 2.1: 1-12.‏
[43] Cerisola, Silvia. Creativity and local economic development: The role of synergy among different talents. Papers in Regional Science, 2018, 97.2: 199-215.‏
[44] Lee, Ryeowon; LEE, Jong-Ho; GARRETT, Tony C. Synergy effects of innovation on firm performance. Journal of Business Research, 2019, 99: 507-515.‏
[45] Wang, Chengwei; MENG, Qingchun. Research on the sustainable synergetic development of Chinese urban economies in the context of a study of industrial agglomeration. Sustainability, 2020, 12.3: 1122.‏
[46] Chen, Yiping, et al. Regional industrial synergy: Potential and path crossing the “environmental mountain”. Science of the Total Environment, 2021, 765: 142714.‏
[47] Glaeser, Edward L., et al. Growth in cities. Journal of political economy, 1992, 100.6: 1126-1152.‏
[48] Marshall, Alfred. Principles of economics Macmillan. London (8th ed. Published in 1920), 1890.‏
[49] Van Der Panne, Gerben. Agglomeration externalities: Marshall versus jacobs. Journal of evolutionary economics, 2004, 14.5: 593-604.‏
[50] Boschma, Ron; Iammarino, Simona. Related variety, trade linkages, and regional growth in Italy. Economic geography, 2009, 85.3: 289-311.‏
[51] Henderson, Vernon; Kuncoro, Ari; Turner, Matt. Industrial development in cities. Journal of political economy, 1995, 103.5: 1067-1090.‏
[52] Neffke, Frank; Henning, Martin; Boschma, Ron. How do regions diversify over time? Industry relatedness and the development of new growth paths in regions. Economic geography, 2011, 87.3: 237-265.‏
[53] Baldwin, John R.; Brown, W. Mark; Rigby, David L. Agglomeration economies: Microdata panel estimates from Canadian manufacturing. Journal of Regional Science, 2010, 50.5: 915-934.‏
[54] Agrawal, Ajay; Cockburn, Iain; Mchale, John. Gone but not forgotten: knowledge flows, labor mobility, and enduring social relationships. Journal of Economic Geography, 2006, 6.5: 571-591.‏
[55] Kim, Yunsoo; BARKLEY, David L.; HENRY, Mark S. Industry characteristics linked to establishment concentrations in nonmetropolitan areas. Journal of Regional Science, 2000, 40.2: 234-259.‏
[56] Anderson, Nathan B.; Bogart, William T. The structure of sprawl: Identifying and characterizing employment centers in polycentric metropolitan areas. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 2001, 60.1: 147-169.
[57] Guillain, Rachel; Le Gallo, Julie. Agglomeration and dispersion of economic activities in and around Paris: an exploratory spatial data analysis. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 2010, 37.6: 961-981.
[58] Bickenbach, Frank; Bode, Eckhardt. Disproportionality measures of concentration, specialization, and localization. International Regional Science Review, 2008, 31.4: 359-388.‏
[59] Longhi, Christian; Musolesi, Antonio; Baumont, Catherine. Modeling structural change in the European metropolitan areas during the process of economic integration. Economic Modelling, 2014, 37: 395-407.‏
[60] Franceschi, Francesco; Mussoni, Maurizio; Pelloni, Gianluigi. A note on new measures of agglomeration and specialization. 2009.‏
[61] Burgalassi, David. Defining and measuring polycentric regions: the case of Tuscany. 2010.‏
[62] Kopczewska, Katarzyna, et al. Measuring regional specialisation: A new approach. Springer, 2017.‏
[63] Bokun, Kathryn O., Et Al. Fred-Sd: A real-time database for state-level data with forecasting applications. International Journal of Forecasting, 2022.‏
[64] Ellison, Glenn; GLAESER, Edward L. Geographic concentration in US manufacturing industries: a dartboard approach. Journal of political economy, 1997, 105.5: 889-927.‏
[65] Ellison, Glenn; GLAESER, Edward L. The geographic concentration of industry: does natural advantage explain agglomeration? American Economic Review, 1999, 89.2: 311-316.‏
[66] Kominers, Scott Duke. Measuring agglomeration. In: Harvard Urban and Social Economics Seminar (Economics 2800) http://www. scottkom. com/articles/measure_agglomeration. pdf. 2008.‏
[67] Cassey, Andrew J.; Smith, Ben O. A Practitioner’s Guide to Testing Regional Industrial Localization. 2015.‏
[68] Franceschi, Francesco; Mussoni, Maurizio; Pelloni, Gianluigi. A note on new measures of agglomeration and specialization. 2009.‏
[69] Glaeser, Edward L., et al. Did the death of distance hurt Detroit and help New York?. Agglomeration economics, 2010, 303: 303-05.‏
[70] Iran Industrial Policy Document on Horizon 2024 (at extra-sectoral and inter-sectoral levels), Institute of Business Studies and Research, June 2021. [In Persian]
[71] Statistical yearbook of Alborz province center from 2011 to 2019, Statistics Center of Iran. [In Persian]
[72] Statistical yearbook of Tehran province center from 1981 to 2019, Statistics Center of Iran. [In Persian]
[73] Strategic plan of the Ministry of Industry, Mines and Trade, Ministry of Industry, Deputy of Planning and Planning, March 2017. [In Persian]
[74] Fifth Five-Year Development Plan of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Vice President for Strategic Planning and Supervision, March 2011. [In Persian]
[75] Assessing the position of industrial development strategy in the country's development plans and its perspective in the Sixth Development Plan, Parliamentary Research Center, May 2016. [In Persian]
[76] Document of the Sixth Economic, Social and Cultural Development Plan of the Islamic Republic of Iran (2016-2021), Management and Planning Organization, 2015. [In Persian]
دوره 3، شماره 2
تیر 1401
صفحه 180-197
  • تاریخ دریافت: 27 فروردین 1401
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 18 خرداد 1401
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 28 خرداد 1401
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 28 خرداد 1401