مطالعه وضع موجود و برنامه ریزیِ احیاء محدودۀ شهری تاریخی بازار کهنۀ قم؛ بر اساس چارچوب های حفاظت شهری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری و هنر، دانشگاه کاشان، کاشان، ایران

2 دانشیار، مرکز مستندنگاری، مطالعات معماری و مرمت، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

محدودۀ شهریِ تاریخی بازار کهنه از محدوده‏های قدیمی شهر قم در مجاورت محلۀ مسجد‏جامع و میدان کهنه است. راستۀ بازار قم به‏عنوان اصلی‏ترین مرکز تجاری شهر تاریخی، رونق اقتصادی قابل ‏توجهی داشت که احداث خیابان طالقانی (آذر) موجب تخریب قسمت‏هایی از بازار و بستر شهری پیرامون آن، انتقال فعالیت‏ها از بازار به خیابان و تضعیف جایگاه بازار در کل شهر شده است. با این‌وجود، بازار کهنه به علت هم‌جواری با عناصر ارزشمند تاریخی از ارزش‏های زیادی برخوردار است. مطالعه و شناسایی چالش‏های موجودِ بافت و تدوین چارچوب و راهبردهای احیای محدودۀ شهری بازار کهنۀ قم از اهداف این مقاله است. مقالۀ حاضر بر مبنای روش توصیفی‌ تحلیلی است؛ که با مطالعات کتابخانه‏ای و بهره‏گیری از بررسی‏های میدانی، به توصیف و تفسیر وضع موجود پرداخته است. سپس، با تکیه بر تکنیک سوات، به این پرسش‏ها پاسخ می‏دهد که چالش‏های محدودۀ شهری بازار کهنۀ قم از دیدگاه مؤلفه‏های حفاظت از شهرهای تاریخی چیست؟ و راهبردهای احیا در این محدوده با توجه به زیرناحیه‏های آن، چه می‏تواند باشد؟ یافته‏های مقاله نشان می‏دهد راهبردهای احیای محدودۀ شهری بازار کهنه باید با توجه به بستر شهری و عناصر تأثیرگذار آن در سه بخش بازار، میدان و خیابان مطرح شوند. تدوین این راهبردها از تعامل دوبه‏دو میان مؤلفه‏های چهارگانۀ قوت، ضعف، فرصت و تهدید در هر محدودۀ مطالعاتی به دست آمده است. نتایج نشان می‏دهد مهم‏ترین راهبردها برای احیای محدودۀ شهری بازار کهنه نیازمند حفاظت از تمامیت کالبدی بناهای واجد ارزش تاریخی این محدوده، اعطای کاربری جدید در راستای جایگاه اصیل آن‏ها و بازتعریف نقش خیابان در این محدوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Study of the Current Situation and the Revitalization Planning of the Historic Urban Area of the Old Bazaar in Qom, Based on the Urban Conservation Frameworks

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farideh Farmanian Arani 1
  • Hamidreza Jayhani 2
1 Master of Architecture,, School of Architecture and Art,. University of Kashan. Iran
2 Associate Professor of Documentation Center, Architecture and Restoration Studies, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University. Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The historical area of old bazaar in Qom includes the principal and subsidiary passages, activity centers such as old bazaar and old square, and historical-religious places such as Jāme’ Mosque, JahangirKhan school, the old square mosque, and minaret (figure 1). This area is a historical complex including different periods of urban development, spatial diversity and attractions which makes it one of the most valuable urban areas in Qom. The old bazaar is one of the critical urban elements in terms of use, function, and access. The main activity of the bazaar carpentry and traditional carpet dyeing. This bazaar is located on two sides of the historic city main core (Labchal neighborhood and Arabestan neighborhood), and its antiquity dates back to the Safavid period. The integrated and cohesive texture of bazaar urban area has undergone heavy changes during recent urban interventions, including several periods of street constructions in which the old bazaar was the most damaged. A part of the Qom ancient bazaar was demolished after the construction of Azar street in 1937, and the passageway of the bazaar became separated between old bazaar and new bazaar(figure 1). The newly established street led to the religious center of the city (the holy shrine of Masoumeh), where the new bazaar was maintained due to its proximity to this center, but the old bazaar was on the path of decline and isolation. In 1993, another axis called Amaryasar Boulevard was established perpendicular to Azar Street, and its extension in 1997 destroyed a complex related to bazaar (Bazazha Caravanserai-figure 2). These changes caused severe damage to the body of this historic urban area and created new challenges. The construction of intersecting streets and the formation of the main traffic on this axis have moved the shopping centers in the old bazaar and surrounding neighborhoods to the main street. Over time, the old bazaar has lost half of its uses. Therefore, the main route of the historic city damaged physically and faced a powerful competitor called street. The street economically and structurally with the old bazaar, while a limited number of small activities to meet the needs of neighborhood residents remain in the old bazaar, and the ancient bazaar has structurally declined to the function of  connecting the passages of the historical texture. These issues have made the old bazaar urban area in need of protection actions and rehabilitation programs. This article aims to define and compile a framework and strategies for rehabilitation of the urban area of the old bazaar in Qom based on the components of urban protection using the SWOT model. The proposed revitalization strategies are focused on the bazaar and its surrounding urban texture, including the Old Square and Taleghani Street. This article recognizes the situation of old bazaar and its potential for reviving and protecting physical integrity by exam‌ining the function of the old bazaar. Then by studying the Washington Charter and its components -related to the protection of historic urban areas- the damages and challenges of the old bazaar urban area are examined, and the rehabilitation strategies are presented in each section separately by using the SWOT technique. 
Materials and methods 
The research method of this article is descriptive-analyti‌cal. This way, the necessary information has been extract‌ed and categorized using library studies, reviewing aerial maps of the area, and analyzing the Washington Charter about the historic city. Additionally, the problems and challenges of the old bazaar area have been studied and identified by conducting field studies, preparing maps of the current situation of the old bazaar, and talking to knowledgeable people and bazaar shopkeepers. Finally, the SWOT technique was used to achieve a practical solution. The revitalization program will be presented af‌ter measuring and analyzing the mentioned cases. 
Findings 
The old bazaar has a strategic location due to its proximi‌ty to the old square, Jāme’ Mosque, and being surround‌ed by the city’s old residential area. The old bazaar com‌plex belongs to the Safavid period and was registered as a cultural heritage in 1997 with the number 1937 [24]. The economic prosperity of Qom Bazaar has been due to two reasons: First, the city was located in the center of communication routes north-south and east-west of Iran. Secondly, the formation of a bazaar adjacent to the old square in the central part of the city was connecting the communication paths of the neighborhoods. Today, communication routes do not have the former func‌tion, and the regional role of the bazaar area has been reduced to neighborhood urban activities role. On the other side, the Qom Bazaar integrated form had become two separate orders (old and new) by constructing the street in the Pahlavi period in 1937, and part of the bazaar was destroyed (Figure 1). In 1997, the Amaryasar axis was formed perpendicular to Taleghani Street and destroyed the Bazazah caravanserai affiliated with the old bazaar. 
Conclusion 
This study aims to develop strategies to revitalize the ur‌ban area of the old bazaar in Qom based on urban pro‌tection frameworks. To achieve this goal, the old bazaar and its surrounding urban elements, including the old square as a crucial element of the historical city in the past and the street as a main traffic axis in today’s city were evaluated. Studies show that the Qom bazaar had an important position in the core of the historical area and was considered as the economic center of the historic city. However, the construction of Azar Street in 1937 changed the historical pattern of the city, and the city based on the street replaced the bazaar-based city. Since then, the street has taken the role of a commercial center, and the position of the bazaar in the city has been declining. This article provides a clear picture of the current situation of the area. It examines challenges relying on the Charter of Historic Urban Ar‌eas (Washington) and its components, including access, function, and physical-spatial structure. Also, this article assesses the urban area of the old bazaar to de-fine strategies for revitalizing this area by studying three important and influential districts, including the bazaar, the street, and the square. Improving the bazaar’s posi‌tion requires reviving its affiliated complexes such as the Mullah Hossein Caravanserai, returning commercial ac‌tivities to the bazaar, and redefining the connection be‌tween the bazaar and the street. Also, physical protection of the bazaar is necessary. The old bazaar’s role in urban life will be lost entirely if this process is postponed. An‌other strategy in this field is to organize the blank spaces around the bazaar by creating a non-commercial use, which im‌proves the historical context’s poor condition and helps strengthen the connection between the street and the bazaar. It is also necessary to determine other strategies for the street and the square to define proper relation‌ship with the bazaar. In this regard, we can help revive the historical context by reducing the commercial and ac‌cessibility role of the street and redefining the role of the street. It is also possible to strengthen residential use and bazaar access routes by improving historical passages. Other ways to revive this historical area are to strength‌en the connection between the square and the bazaar, return the square to its authentic position, organize the bazaar structurally and functionally, and organize the Ghi‌asieh School. Prioritization of strategies for revitalizing the urban area of the old bazaar shows that the main and most important actions must first be taken to organize and protect the crucial elements of the historic city, including the Old Bazaar, Mullah Hossein Caravanserai, Old Square and Ghiasieh School, which will pave the way for further actions, and until this is done, other revitalization strategies in this area will not be able to play their role properly.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Revitalization
  • Old Bazaar of Qom
  • Urban Conservation
  • Historic Urban Area
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