تبیین مبانی فقهی شهر هوشمند در شهر ایرانی اسلامی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 پژوهشگر دوره دکتری شهرسازی اسلامی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

در اندیشۀ اسلامی قواعد فقهی گستره‏ای به وسعت زندگی فردی و اجتماعی مسلمانان دارد. این قواعد باید و نبایدهایی را برای ابعاد و حوزه‏های مختلف زندگی مسلمانان ارائه می‏دهد که توجه و پایبندی به آن‌ها می‏تواند در سعادت وی مؤثر واقع شود. از جملۀ این حوزه‏ها، شهر هوشمند است که با رشد فزایندۀ فضاهای مجازی و ابزارها و روش‌های هوشمند، شهرها را دگرگون ساخته و محمل فرصت‌ها و تهدیدهای بسیاری است. هدف این پژوهش، مطالعۀ شهر هوشمند از منظر فقهی و استخراج باید و نبایدهای مربوطه است که با روش تحلیل محتوای متون و استدلال منطقی با رویکردی کیفی و میان‏رشته‏ای انجام می‏شود. نتایج پژوهش نشان‌دهندۀ آن است که حقوق چهارگانه باید در تمامی جنبه‏های واقعی و مجازی شهر رعایت شده و ابزارهای هوشمند علاوه بر لزوم رعایت آن‌ها، در این مسیر می‏تواند مفید واقع شود. قواعد فقهی لاضرر، ضمان، نفی سبیل، حلیت و تزاحم مصلحت از مهم‌ترین قواعد فقهی هستند که بیشترین ارتباط را با شهر هوشمند دارند و باید و نبایدهای مهمی را در راستای رعایت حقوق از منظر اسلام برخوردارند. همچنین، در بررسی ارتباط بین این قواعد با مؤلفه‏های شهر ‏هوشمند، قاعدۀ لاضرر و ولایت حاکم و تزاحم مصلحت، قاعدۀ ضمان و نفی سبیل با ابعاد بیشتری در ارتباط است و مصادیق بسیاری از جنبه‌های مختلف شهر هوشمند دارد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Definition the jurisprudential principles of the smart city for Iranian Islamic Cities

نویسندگان [English]

  • Asghar Molaei 1
  • Sesigheh Bahrami 2
1 Assistance Professor, Department of Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning,,Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran
2 Ph.D. Candidate of Islamic Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tabriz Islamic Arts University, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Considering the speed of information and communication without borders, which is the theoretical basis of the city of the communication age, the approach of smart city is a response in line with the tone of changes and demands of the time and is used as a tool to achieve sustainable development in all dimensions and all times Placed. The application of smart city concept is unavoidable in all societies due to the complexity and breadth of today’s city problems. It makes it possible to perform many processes of urban life in cyberspace or the field of information and communication technology in the recent age. This means fast and relatively free access to an infinite space of data and information and has created challenges in different societies, including Muslim societies (due to the different nature of philosophical and doctrinal foundations) in terms of ethics, principles, values, and lifestyle. The issue of data security and privacy, which has become a common issue in all societies, is another challenge of this approach. There are many attempts to establish the correct method of assessing and recognizing the potential for danger in the face of new ideas in the world,. Still, a good way is to match the relevant issues with a higher standard and evaluate the issue with a more reliable source of theoretical and empirical reason. Every society needs to localize smart city concept with the help of its accepted tools and criteria to synchronize the basic principles of this approach and understand how to implement and control it. In the religion of Islam, the central teachings that can be used in this regard include beliefs, ethics, and jurisprudence.
Materials and Methods
In Islamic thought, jurisprudential rules have a wide range of individual and social life of Muslims. These rules provide do’s and don’ts for different dimensions and areas of Muslim life that attention and adherence to them can be effective in one’s well-being. Smart city issues and approaches can also be assessed in this context to minimize challenges such as the possibility of imposing a foreign culture, changing lifestyles, reducing effective social interactions, shaking the family foundation, isolation and depression, adverse effects on local and micro-economies, and many such issues that researchers have considered. This research aims to study the smart city from the jurisprudential point of view and extract the relevant do’s and don’ts to provide the best and most effective application of this approach in Islamic cities. This research is done by the research method of content analysis of texts and logical reasoning with a qualitative and interdisciplinary approach. 
Findings
The sources used are documents and library resources in the field of smart city and jurisprudential issues and rules, and religious sources have also been used in this regard. First, the principles of the smart city and its criteria and then the rules of Islamic jurisprudence were studied. In this regard, 12 jurisprudential rules related to the principles and components of the smart city have been identified: The rules of authenticity, legitimacy, combining expediency (essential), denying the mustache, denying extravagance and luxury, no harm,  no wasting, the causation, domination, negation of hardship and governing. Another issue studied in this research is the relationship between the smart city and related jurisprudential rules with observing the four rights (the right of God, soul, others, and nature). 
Conclusion
The results show that the rights of God, the rights of the soul, the rights of other human beings, and the rights of nature must be observed in all real and virtual aspects of the city, and smart tools can be helpful in this direction. The most critical jurisprudential rules of La Zarar, Zaman, Nafye-Sabil, Heliiat, and Maslahat are the jurisprudential rules that have important do’s and don’ts to observe rights from the perspective of Islam. Also, in analyzing the relationship between these rules with the dimensions of the smart city (Smart transportation, smart economy, smart community, smart living, smart environment, and smart governance), the rules of La Zarar, Zaman, Nafye-Sabil, the conflict of expediency, Heliiat and Maslahat are related to more dimensions and have examples of many different aspects of the smart city. Finally, with this study, it can be said that if the principles of the smart city are coordinated with the topics of Islamic jurisprudence, the security capability and trust in this innovation will increase, and we will see a more favorable performance from it.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Islamic law
  • Smart City
  • Jurisprudential Rules
  • Iranian Islamic Cities
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دوره 3، شماره 2
تیر 1401
صفحه 198-214
  • تاریخ دریافت: 23 فروردین 1401
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 26 اردیبهشت 1401
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 31 خرداد 1401
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 01 تیر 1401