سنجش کیفیت معنایی نمای مجتمع‌های تجاری بر اساس خوانش ادراکات ذهنی مخاطبان (بانوان) آشنا و ناآشنا با محیط با کاربست نظریه زمینه‌ای (مطالعه موردی: شهر قزوین)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه معماری، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه معماری، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران.

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر یافتن ادراک ذهنی مخاطبان آشنا و ناآشنا درباره کیفیت معناشناختی نماهای معماری مجتمع‌های تجاری و بررسی تفاوت کیفیت ادراک ذهنی مخاطبان تحت تأثیر خاطرات و ذهنیات از نمای ابنیه تجاری شهر قزوین است. روش تحقیق آمیخته‌ای از روش‌های توصیفی تحلیلی و نظریه زمینه‌ای است. گردآوری داده‌ها با ابزار مصاحبه نیمه‌ساختاریافته از کاربران و ناظران این نماها و از میان عموم مردم صورت گرفته است. جامعه نمونه به‌صورت تصادفی منظم در دو دسته شهروندان قزوینی (مخاطبان آشنا) و مخاطبان ناآشنا با مجتمع‌های مورد بررسی انتخاب شدند. مخاطبان ناآشنا از بین ساکنان دو شهر رشت و تهران انتخاب شدند. علت انتخاب این دو شهر، یافتن تفاوت‌های احتمالی در پاسخ‌های این دو گروه بنابر تفاوت مقیاس شهر، انتظارات و پیش‌زمینه‌های ساکنان این دو شهر بود. ابنیه تجاری مورد سؤال شامل تمامی 13 مجتمع تجاری شهر قزوین است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد ادراک ذهنی مخاطبان آشنا و ناآشنا درباره کیفیت معناشناختی نماهای معماری مجتمع‌های تجاری شهر قزوین دارای تفاوت‌ها و شباهت‌های معناداری است. تفاوت‌ها عمدتاً به جنبه‌های عاطفی و پس‌ازآن، کارکردی مربوط است و شباهت‌ها در ادراکات ذهنی به ویژگی‌های شکلی- کالبدی نماها ارتباط دارد. درنهایت در میان زیربخشهای کیفیات معنایی، اگرچه کیفیات عاطفی در تعدیل نگرش منفی و ادراک ذهنی نامطلوب از نماهای تجاری برای مخاطبان آشنا مؤثر بوده اما کیفیات کالبدی و پس‌ازآن کارکردی، عوامل مهم‌تر و عام‌تر در ادراک ذهنی مطلوب برای مخاطبان آشنا و ناآشنا است که پیامد آن کیفیات عاطفی مطلوب خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the Semantic Quality of Commercial Complexes Facades Based on Reading Mental Perceptions of Audience (women) Familiar and Unfamiliar with the Environment, Using Grounded Theory (Case Study: Qazvin City)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mandana Yousefi 1
  • Hosna Varmaghani 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran
2 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The current research aims to find the subjective perception of familiar and unfamiliar audiences (women) about the semantic quality of the architectural facades of commercial complexes and to investigate the difference in the quality of the subjective perception of the audience under the influence of memories and mentalities from the façade of commercial buildings in Qazvin city. The research question is what is the subjective perception of familiar and unfamiliar audiences about the semantic quality of architectural facades of commercial complexes in Qazvin city?”. What effect will the memories and mentalities of the audience familiar and unfamiliar with the commercial building of Qazvin city have on the difference in the quality of mental perception of the facade of the building? The research method is a combination of descriptive-analytical methods and grounded theory. The steps of the second method include sampling and conducting interviews until reaching theoretical saturation, categorizing the results through categorization, open coding, and axial coding until the stage of forming the core category of the research. Data collection has been done with the semi-structured interview tool in two preliminary and final stages from the users and observers of these views and the general public. The sample population was randomly selected into two groups: Qazvin citizens (acquainted addressee) and unacquainted addressee with the studied complexes. The unacquainted addressee was selected from residents of Rasht and Tehran. The reason for choosing these two cities was to find possible differences in the answers of these two groups according to the difference in the scale of the city and the expectations and backgrounds of the residents of these two cities. The commercial buildings in question include all 13 commercial complexes in Qazvin. The results show that the mental perception of acquainted and unacquainted people about the semantic quality of the architectural facades of commercial complexes in Qazvin has significant differences and similarities. The differences are mainly related to the emotional and then functional aspects, and the similarities in mental perceptions are related to the physical characteristics of the facades. Finally, among the sub-sections of semantic qualities, although emotional qualities are influential in modulating negative attitudes and undesirable mental perceptions of commercial views for acquainted people, physical and then functional qualities are more critical and general factors in the mental perception of acquainted and unacquainted people, that its result will be desirable emotional qualities. 
Materials and Methods
This research adopted three stages of coding, including open, axial, and selective coding. In the first step (open coding), the text of all interviews was studied separately and in full detail. Its concepts and categories were extracted and compared with each other and with the categories of other interviews. If necessary, subcategories, characteristics, and dimensions were defined. Then, in the selective coding stage, the categories and their dimensions were compared and integrated, and the final classification was obtained. In this step, the necessary information was obtained to extract the conceptual model of the data. The sample population was randomly selected into two categories: Qazvin citizens (familiar audiences) and unfamiliar audiences with the investigated complexes. Unfamiliar audiences were selected from residents of two cities, Rasht and Tehran. The reason for choosing these two cities was to find possible differences in the responses of these two groups based on the difference in city scale, expectations, and backgrounds of the residents of these two cities. The commercial buildings in question include 13 commercial complexes in Qazvin city. In this study, an attempt has been made to develop the model obtained from the data in the framework of the contextual theory in relation to the semantic quality of the facade and subjective perceptions (especially regarding commercial facades and also to expand the discussion by comparing the perceptions of different groups of users in terms of the influence of mental background and place of their residence) to be drawn, described and explained. 
Findings
Prioritization of commercial complexes’ facades includes Niayesh, Noor, Khalije-Fars, Alborz, Mehr and Mah, Iranian, Narvan, Touba, Dariush, Ferdowsi, Al Ghadir, Setareshahr, Pars. In unfamiliar people, metaphorical associations are more than in familiar people. Some commercial complexes, such as Noor, have the most metaphorical associations, such as a castle, submarine, space station, and cabin in front of the train. In these complexes, compared to other commercial complexes, purer volumes such as cylinders and cubes have been used. In contrast to other commercial complexes, they have a combination of volumes. Recognizing pure volumes in this complex allows the viewer to create a metaphorical association. One of the most critical factors for evaluating the semantic quality of commercial complexes for familiar people is to pay attention to the sociable spaces of the entrances, including setbacks, furniture, and green spaces. Furthermore, paying attention to the pedestrian view and the sociability of the entrance space were evaluated as the most critical factors. So that some complexes were not significant in terms of the body, but they were assessed very well in terms of entrance function. The most important factors that caused the lack of desirability of commercial facades are inappropriate colors and materials, irregular geometry, ambiguity, lack of identity, additional, and adjoint elements. By analyzing the pictures drawn by the respondents, the most important factors are color, geometry, variety of forms, attention to detail, extensive use of glass, attention to the entrance, and repeated horizontal and vertical lines.
Conclusion
The results show that the three physical, functional and emotional characteristics have influenced the subjective perception of the audience about the semantic quality of the facade of commercial complexes in different ways. In this way, the mental perception of familiar audiences is influenced by all three groups of emotional, physical, and functional characteristics. Also, the perception of unfamiliar audiences in both the scales of large and medium cities about the semantic quality of the facade of commercial complexes has been affected by physical and functional characteristics. The final result is that among the subsections of semantic qualities. However, emotional qualities have been effective in balancing negative attitudes and unfavorable mental perceptions of commercial facades for familiar audiences. However, physical qualities and then functional qualities are more critical and general factors in the favorable mental perception of familiar and unfamiliar audiences, which will result in favorable emotional qualities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mental Perception
  • Architectural Facade
  • Commercial Complex
  • Semantic Quality
  • Qazvin city
[1] Alamrathi, M, Matlabi Q, Froutan M, Jalalian S. Explaining the conceptual model of the meaning of the facades of residential apartments from the residents' point of view (case study: Ardebil city).Haft Hesar. 2021: 36(10), 160-147. [In Persian].
[2] Bahreyni H. Analysis of Urban Spaces. Tehran: University of Tehran. 2013. [In Persian].
[3] Bandarabad A. Gender and Difference in the Perception of the Urban Environment; Concepts and Standards. Geography. 2017; 16(59): 107-121. [In Persian].
[4] Behzadipour H, Davodpour, Z, Zabihi H. Measuring the dimensions of citizens' environmental perception among high-rise buildings, a case study: District 22 of Tehran. Applied Research in Geographical Sciences. 2022; 22(64): 368-349. [In Persian].
[5] Bentley E. Y. Responsive Environments. Translated by Mostafa B. Tehran: University of Science and Technology. 2019. [In Persian].
[6] Chapman D. Creation of localities and places in man-made environment. Translated by Fariadi S, Tabibian M. Tehran: University of Tehran. 2016. [In Persian].
[7] Dehkhoda A. A. Dictionary of Dehkhoda. Vol. 11. Tehran: University of Tehran. 2006. [In Persian].
[8] Falahat M. S. The concept of sense of place and its shaping factors. Journal of Fine Arts. 2006; 26: 66-57. [In Persian].
[9] Fardpour S, Dolatabadi F, Mahdavinejad M. J. The reading of the schematic view of contemporary urban buildings in Tehran in the first and second Pahlavi periods. Armanshahr. 2021; 35: 164-149. [In Persian].
[10] Golkar K. Creating a sustainable place for reflections on urban design theory. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University. 2011. [In Persian].
[11] Habibi S. M. New city, thresholds for the development of urban memory. International conference of new cities. Tehran. 2006. [In Persian].
[12] Kaplan, R., & Kaplan, S. (1989). The experience of nature: A psychological perspective. Cambridge University Press.
[13] Karimi Yazdi A, Barati N, Zarei M. Comparative evaluation of the perception of urban space from the point of view of the audience and urban experts (a case study of Imamzadeh Saleh Tajrish Urban Complex, Tehran). Bagh Nazar. 2016; 13(45): 13-26. [In Persian].
[14] Khadamipour A, Zabihi H, Mofidi Shemirani S. Evaluation of the influencing components on the promotion of architectural landscape identity in contemporary facades. Urban Research and Planning. 2020; 11(41): 197-213. [In Persian].
[15] Lak A. Application of Background Theory in Urban Design Research.Sofeh. 2014; 24(64): 44-60. [In Persian].
[16] Lang J. Creation of Architectural Theory. Translated by Einifar, A. Tehran: University of Tehran. 2016. [In Persian].
[17] Laupheimer, D., Tutzauer, P., Haala, N., & Spicker, M. (2018). Neural Networks for the Classification of Building Use from Street-View Imagery, ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, IV-2, 177-184.
[18] Lawson B. The Language of Space. Translated by Einifar A, Karimian. F. Tehran: University of Tehran. 2014. [In Persian].
[19] Lynch, K. (1992). The image of the city. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
[20] Lynch K. The Theory of City Form.Translated by BahrainiS. H. Tehran: University of Tehran. 2014.[In Persian].
[21] Motamedinejad M, Saeidi Mofard S. Evaluation of the visual effects of buildings on the natural landscape (case example: Namaz Mashhad Boulevard). Environmental Science and Technology. 2021; 23(11): 51-68. [In Persian].
[22] Mousaviyan S. The formation of place identity through sensory perceptions in the Iranian garden. National Studies. 2019; 20(4): 115-134. [In Persian].
[23] Pakzad J. The Flow of Ideas in Urban Planning 3. Tehran: Armanshahr. 2013. [In Persian].
[24] Partoei P. Phenomenology of Place. Tehran: Art Academy. 2013. [In Persian].
[25] Pinheiro, J.Q. (1998). Determinants of cognitive maps of the world as expressed in sketch maps. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, 321-339.
[26] Ramezani M. I. Clarifying the quality of citizens' subjective perception of the quality of environmental elements of urban sidewalks, a case study: Tabriz metropolis. Geography and Environmental Studies. 2020; 9(34): 56-43. [In Persian].
[27] Rapaport, A. (1999). The Meaning of the Built Environment. Arizona: The University of Arizona Press.
[28] Relph E. Place and placelessness. Translated by Noqsan Mohammadi M. R, Mandegari K, Motaki, Zahir. Tehran: Armanshahr. 2016. [In Persian].
[29] Sarbakhshi M. Sensory perception, presence perception. Mind Journal. 2011: 46, 51-31. [In Persian].
[30] Shokouei H. New ideas in the field of geography. Vol. 2. Tehran: Gitashenasi. 2013. [In Persian].
[31] Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of Qualitative Research: Procedures and Techniques for Developing Grounded Theory. London: SAGE.
[32] Tabatabaei M. Urban walls and their role in the quality of the environment (facade construction criteria in urban spaces). Tehran: Armanshahr Publications. 2011. [In Persian].
[33] Tribe, Michael. (1974), Stadtgestaltuxg theorie and praxis, Bertel smann.
[34] Vahdatalab, M, Yaran A, Mohammadi Khoshbin H. Evaluation of visual preferences in residential facades, case study: twelve historical houses in Tabriz. Amanshahr. 2013; 32: 187-175. [In Persian].
[35] Zarifpour Langroudi A, Alborzi F, Soheili J. Investigating the facades of urban streets from the perspective of citizens' perception (case example: 15 Khordad pedestrian walkway, Tehran). Applied Research in Geographical Sciences. 2022; 22(66): 341-325. [In Persian]. 
دوره 3، شماره 3
شهریور 1401
صفحه 114-133
  • تاریخ دریافت: 01 تیر 1401
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 28 شهریور 1401
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 29 شهریور 1401
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 29 شهریور 1401